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论文信息：Song N, Dai Q, Zhu B, Wu Y, Xu M, Voegele RT, et al. (2017) Gα proteins Gvm2 and Gvm3 regulate vegetative growth, asexual development, and pathogenicityon apple in Valsa mali. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173141.
JCR 3区， IF=3.057
论文摘要：In fungi, heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) are key elements of signal transduction pathways, which control growth, asexual and sexual development, as well as virulence. In this study, we have identified two genes encoding heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits, named Gvm2 and Gvm3, from Valsa mali, the causal agent of apple Valsa canker. Characterization of Gvm2 and Gvm3 mutants indicates that Gvm3 may be a crucial regulator of vegetative growth. Deletion of the corresponding gene results in a 20% reduction in growth rate. Besides, Gvm2 and Gvm3 seem to be involved in asexual reproduction, and mutants are hypersensitive to oxidative and cell membrane stresses. Interestingly, both G protein alpha subunits were most probably involved in V. mali virulence. In infection assays using Malus domestica cv. `Fuji' leaves and twigs, the size of lesions caused by deletion mutants 4Gvm2, or4Gvm3 are significantly reduced. Furthermore, many genes encoding hydrolytic enzymesÐimportant virulence factors in V. maliÐare expressed at a lower level in these deletion mutants. Our results suggest that Gvm2 and Gvm3 play an important role in virulence probably by regulation of expression of cell wall degrading enzymes. 4Gvm2, and4Gvm3 mutants were further analyzed with respect to their impact on the transcript levels of genes in the cAMP/PKA pathway. The expression of the genes encoding adenylate cyclase VmAC, protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit VmPKR, and PKA catalytic subunit VmPKA1 are down-regulated in both mutants. Further analyses indicated that intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity are down-regulated in the 4Gvm3 mutant, but are basically unchanged in the 4Gvm2 mutant. Overall, our findings indicate that both Gvm2 and Gvm3 play diverse roles in the modulation of vegetative growth, asexual development, and virulence in V. mali.